By Ralf H. Dahm, Derek M. Brewis
Fluorinated polymers have a few very worthwhile houses corresponding to very good chemical resistance. notwithstanding, they're frequently tough to bond with out a pretreatment. There are exceptions and untreated poly(vinylidene fluoride), for instance, should be effectively bonded with an amine-cured epoxide. the best ways to pretreat totally fluorinated polymers have been constructed within the Nineteen Fifties. a lot paintings, in particular on electrochemical and plasma remedies, has when you consider that been performed yet so far those haven't proved as potent because the early equipment. partly fluorinated polymers should be taken care of like polyolefins, for instance, flame, and plasma remedies are very potent. Aqueous and alcoholic strategies of staff I hydroxides also are very powerful. Fluoropolymers offers a mixture of homes together with extreme temperature resistance, first-class resistance to many chemical compounds and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hearth resistance and coffee friction. Fluoropolymers are particularly dear and they're mostly utilized in specialized functions comparable to linings for chemical plant, spacecraft coatings which are proof against atomic oxygen, fire-resistant coatings for cables, and naturally, non-stick capabilities. There are greater than twenty varied fluoropolymers which are commercially to be had. sturdy adhesion is needed in a couple of applied sciences concerning fluoropolymers together with adhesive bonding, portray, printing, metallisation (via vacuum or resolution) and composite creation. even though, absolutely fluorinated polymers akin to PTFE and FEP are notoriously tricky to stick to, whereas partly fluorinated polymers similar to PVDF and PVF could cause difficulties counting on the conditions. to accomplish a passable point of adhesion, it is usually essential to perform a pretreatment with either totally and partly fluorinated polymers. during this overview the rules of adhesion are thought of first (Section 2). strategies that experience tremendously elevated our knowing of adhesion to fluoropolymers are defined in part three. circumstances the place reliable adhesion is completed with out a pretreatment are tested in part four. in spite of the fact that, as pretreatments tend to be had to get the necessary point of adhesion, this evaluation is principally keen on the wide range of equipment to be had to pretreat fluoropolymers (Section 5). A common dialogue and conclusions stick with. This Rapra overview file includes a concise, specialist overview, supported by means of an intensive bibliography compiled from the Polymer Library concerning adhesion to fluoropolymers. This bibliography offers additional info in this topical box. This overview can be of curiosity either to those that already use fluoropolymers and those that are contemplating utilizing them.
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Additional info for Adhesion to Fluoropolymers
LF low frequency m metre mm millimetre ASTM D2578, Standard Test Method for Wetting Tension of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Films, 2004. L. S. Lopata and J. Smith, Surface and Interface Analysis, 1993, 20, 331. 13 M. Morra, E. Occhiello and F. Garbassi, Surface and Interface Analysis, 1990, 16, 412. 16 J. P. Dousek and V. Patzelova, Carbon, 1975, 13, 5, 377. Abbreviations and Acronyms ASTM American Society for Testing Materials AT-FTIR attenuated reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy at.
The best adhesion was achieved using a hydrogen plasma, which generated the highest degree of defluorination of the surface. Defluorination efficiency decreased in the sequence hydrogen-argon-oxygennitrogen. For a given energy dose, surface roughness decreased with increasing plasma power. This was possibly due to partial melting. 30 refs. ; IBM PTFE film surfaces were exposed to vacuum UV radiation from plasma that rotated inside a graphite tube by the application of an auxiliary magnetic field.
Mathieson and co-workers (215) showed that large increases in adhesion could be achieved by flame treating PVF and ECTFE (Table 18). 0 2980 *For a bonded area of 20 mm wide x 10 mm long, a two-part epoxide was used actual decrease in bond strength. With the other two polymers a substantial quantity of oxygen functionality was introduced and this is probably responsible for the improved adhesion. From an adhesion viewpoint, PVF and ECTFE can be pretreated as polyolefins. 5 Photochemical Pretreatments These are of interest because they offer a potentially less expensive alternative to plasma treatments.
Adhesion to Fluoropolymers by Ralf H. Dahm, Derek M. Brewis