By Andris Freivalds
Creation to BiomechanicsWhat Is Biomechanics?Basic ConceptsCoordinate SystemsForce Vector AlgebraStatic EquilibriumAnthropometry and middle of Mass DeterminationFrictionDynamicsStructure of the Musculoskeletal SystemGross review of MovementsSkeletal SystemMechanical homes of BoneSoft Connective TissueJointsNeuromuscular body structure and Motor ControlIntroduction to MusculatureStructure of MuscleBasic Cell PhysiologyNervous SystemExcitation-Contraction SequenceMotor UnitsBasic Muscle houses (Mechanics)Energy, Metabolism, and warmth ProductionReceptorsReflexes and Motor ControlModelin. Read more...
summary: advent to BiomechanicsWhat Is Biomechanics?Basic ConceptsCoordinate SystemsForce Vector AlgebraStatic EquilibriumAnthropometry and heart of Mass DeterminationFrictionDynamicsStructure of the Musculoskeletal SystemGross assessment of MovementsSkeletal SystemMechanical houses of BoneSoft Connective TissueJointsNeuromuscular body structure and Motor ControlIntroduction to MusculatureStructure of MuscleBasic telephone PhysiologyNervous SystemExcitation-Contraction SequenceMotor UnitsBasic Muscle homes (Mechanics)Energy, Metabolism, and warmth ProductionReceptorsReflexes and Motor ControlModelin
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Additional resources for Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs : Mechanics, Modeling and Musculoskeletal Injuries, Second Edition
The fingers are termed the phalanges and the palm is formed by the metacarpals. This is one reason why the hand is such a good manipulative device that is difficult to replicate even with the finest robotic controls currently available. The thumb is the first digit, the index finger is the second, the middle finger is the third, the ring finger is the fourth, and the small finger is the fifth. MP refers to the metacarpophalangeal joint and IP refers to interphalangeal joints.
The external weights or resistive forces are counterbalanced by an effort force, in this case the biceps brachii muscle force. Each acts through a respective 10 Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs moment or lever arm. 41) where re is the lever arm for the effort force rr is the lever arm for the resistive force Fr is the resistive force Fe is the effort force There are three different types of lever systems with different values for the mechanical advantage. 7a). 42) This, in reality, is a mechanical disadvantage and may be one of the factors in the high incidence of low-back problems.
If the weight is merely being held, then this is a simpler case of statics, with no need to consider the dynamic effects from accelerations or initial velocities. Since the triceps is active only during elbow extension, it can be disregarded for elbow flexion. , there are too many variables for the given amount of data or no one unique muscle force can be attributed to each muscle. 6a. 5 Musculature of the left upper limb while holding a weight. 6 (a) Simplified upper limb while holding a weight.
Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs : Mechanics, Modeling and Musculoskeletal Injuries, Second Edition by Andris Freivalds