By Alexandru Grigorescu
This paintings posits that, over the last centuries, democratic norms have unfold from family politics to intergovernmental organisations (IGOs). Grigorescu explores how norms formed IGO decision-making ideas equivalent to these riding nation participation, vote casting, entry to details, and the position of NGOs and transnational parliaments. The research emphasizes the function of "normative pressures" (the interplay among norm power and the measure to which the established order strays from norm prescriptions). utilizing basic and secondary resources to evaluate the plausibility of its arguments throughout centuries and dozen IGOs, the learn makes a speciality of advancements in League of countries, overseas exertions association, United international locations, global financial institution, eu Union, and international exchange association.
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Extra resources for Democratic Intergovernmental Organizations?: Normative Pressures and Decision-Making Rules
I then use these measures to assess the strength of the five norms across time in IGOs. To allow for c omparisons between the five norms, I establish a common method for determining their strength. Whenever possible, I consider all values for the strength of each norm across the period between 1920 (after the League of Nations and ILO, the first two major IGOs discussed in this book, were established) and present day. I then scale all such values from 0 to 1, with 0 being the minimum norm strength for the time period and 1 the Normative Pressures and Strategies for Defusing Them 25 maximum.
One should distinguish the mechanism of framing norms that I refer to earlier from those based on the logic of communicative action discussed by Risse (2000). The latter logic implies that the actors who come together in negotiations are open to any possible collective solution. It also emphasizes mechanisms through which actors are persuaded of the appropriateness of one specific norm or another. In fact, I join those who are skeptical about the possibility that international actors will actually be persuaded in their interactions with each other (Payne 2001).
Therefore, in the case of fair participation, I gauge the degree to which the application of the norm departs from its prescription in the UN by calculating the number of states vying for each non-permanent seat in a given year. Similarly, I gauge the degree of an IGO’s transparency by assessing the proportion of meetings that are open to the public in a given year, as this interpretation is used by states promoting access to information reforms. I then distinguish between times when the degree to which the status quo departed from the norm prescription was high (H), moderate (M), or low (L), using, whenever possible, analogous cutoff points as in the assessment of norm strength.
Democratic Intergovernmental Organizations?: Normative Pressures and Decision-Making Rules by Alexandru Grigorescu