By Gunter Buxbaum
'Everything there's to understand approximately inorganic pigments' Revised and up-to-date, this e-book deals a concise and thorough presentation of inorganic pigments of their range: their production methods, their functions and markets, their checking out approaches and criteria, and in addition the overall healthiness and environmental rules in terms of them. Over forty top notch authors from top chemical businesses have created a uniform and obviously established textual content, giving a great evaluate of the topic zone. The reader is supplied with greater than 800 updated references to the pertinent literature, in an effort to be tremendous important for extra reviews. This publication could be of profit to all chemists, fabrics experts, engineers, program technicians and scholars in pigment-related fields.
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Additional info for Industrial Inorganic Pigments, Second Edition
These can be integrated for the valid boundary conditions at the incident light side, and at the opposite side. Solutions for the transmittance z and the reflectance e are obtained from these integrals as a function of the absorption coefficient K, the scattering coefficient S , the film thickness h, and in special cases of the reflectance e, of a given substrate. The most important and widely used quantity derived from the Kubelka-Munk theory is the reflectance of an opaque (infinitely thick) film that is described by a very simple equation : From this expression (Kubelka-Munk function) it follows that, within the range of validity of the theory, e , depends only on the ratio of the absorption coefficient to the scattering coefficient, and not on their individual values.
52]. Continuous breakdown of the binder leads to the loss of gloss. Surface gloss gives an attractive appearance and is usually desired, it is obtained by ensuring that the pigment particles are well dispersed. The stability of gloss to weathering is therefore of great importance. If breakdown of the binder is so extensive that the pigment may be loosened, chalking takes place. Chalking is defined as loosening of pigment or extender particles following destruction of the binder at the surface. For standards, see Table 1 (“Coating materials”).
Scattering of white pigments as a function of particle size ( A = 550 nm) a) Rutile; b) Anatase; c) Zinc sulfide; d) Zinc oxide; e) White lead; f) Barium sulfate Particle size 0,pn- Table 7. , for tinting strength) are now considered. 30]. The parameter a on the abscissa can once more be taken as a relative measure of the particle size. The following conclusions may be drawn : 26 1. Introduction 1) For very small particles, the absorption is independent of the particle size, and hence any further reduction in particle size does not produce additional absorption.
Industrial Inorganic Pigments, Second Edition by Gunter Buxbaum