By Zheng Cui
This moment version of Nanofabrication is without doubt one of the such a lot accomplished introductions on nanofabrication applied sciences and methods. a realistic consultant and reference, this ebook introduces readers to all the constructed applied sciences which are able to making constructions under 100nm. the primary of every know-how is brought and illustrated with minimal arithmetic concerned. additionally analyzed are the functions of every know-how in making sub-100nm buildings, and the boundaries of forestalling a expertise from going extra down the dimensional scale. This e-book offers readers with a toolkit that may aid with any in their nanofabrication challenges.
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Extra resources for Nanofabrication: Principles, Capabilities and Limits
The purpose of pre-exposure bake (Pre-bake) is to drive out all the solvent in the photoresist layer so that the photoresist layer becomes completely dry and solid. Pre-bake is also called softbake, with temperature and baking time specified by photoresist manufacturer. Exposure Silicon wafers coated with photoresist is placed in an optical stepper for exposure. As mentioned earlier, alignment has to be performed if it is not the first layer exposure, finding the alignment marks and making sure the accurate overlay of current mask with previously patterned structures on the wafer.
The third issue is mask manufacturing complexity. Phase shift layer has to be produced by additional exposure and deposition or etching of the mask. This additional manufacturing step not only increases the mask cost, but also requires accurate alignment of two different patterns and increases the possibility of defects. Inspection and repair of phase defects are still critical issues. The overall cost of a PSM is at least ten times higher than a conventional binary mask.
While the resist sensitivity and LER have to be improved simultaneously, another issue cannot be ignored, too, that is the outgassing of resist during EUV exposure . Gaseous molecules released from resist upon EUV irradiation can contaminate the EUV mirror surface, hence degrading the EUV optics and reducing its life time. 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 LER (nm) Fig. 14 Sensitivity vs LER for EUV resists (reprint from ref.  with permission) Although EUV was projected to become the main lithography technology in 2009 at 32 nm generation of IC manufacturing.
Nanofabrication: Principles, Capabilities and Limits by Zheng Cui